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The new edition of Human Body Composition is the most complete text in the burgeoning field of body composition research. The book covers the full range of methods to assess body composition, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, electrical impedance, and imaging techniques. Maintaining the focus of the first edition as a definitive research guide, this resource incorporates updated information on methods and topics of biological importance.

This thoroughly revised reference includes new material on

* molecular genetics;
* energy expenditure;
* body composition as related to various pathological states including cancer, inflammatory diseases, and illnesses associated with HIV; and
* animal body composition.

The information is presented in five logical parts along with an appendix for easy comprehension of the material. Part I presents an introduction to the field and sets the tone for the ensuing chapters. Part II provides an extensive review of the available body composition methods, including measurement cost, safety, and practicality. Part III features reviews on specific body composition components of widespread interest, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, along with a review of body composition models. Part IV covers the biological influences on body composition such as age, ethnicity, and gender. Part V outlines pathological states related to body composition, including morbidity-mortality links.

Human Body Composition, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive account of the science behind human body composition methods. Filled with reliable and accurate information, it is an essential tool and an indispensable reference for exercise science researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who are interested in body composition.
About the Author
Steven B. Heymsfield, MD, brings a broad range of experience in research to the writing of this book. He is trained in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine, all of which relate to the measurement and study of body composition. Dr. Heymsfield is currently the executive director of clinical studies, metabolism at Merck in Rahway, New Jersey, where he oversees Merck’s Clinical Obesity Research Program.

Additionally, he is a visiting scientist at the Obesity Research Center at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital. Prior to his current position, Dr. Heymsfield was a professor of medicine at the Columbia University, New York, College of Physicians and Surgeons.

Dr. Heymsfield has conducted national and international presentations and made many contributions to publications in the field. He serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, International Journal of Body Composition Research, Age & Nutrition, Nutrition Reviews, Clinical Nutrition, and Adipocytes. He is also an active member of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity and past president of both the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

Timothy G. Lohman, PhD, is a leading scientist in the field of body composition assessment. A respected researcher, he explores body composition methodology and changes in body composition with growth and development, exercise, and aging. His leadership in standardization of body composition methodology is well recognized.

Dr. Lohman is a professor in the department of exercise science at the University of Arizona. He is also a fellow of the American Academy of Physical Education, a member of the American College of Sports Medicine, and a member of the Youth Fitness Advisory Committee of the Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research in Dallas, Texas. He is the author of many research articles and an editor of the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, published by Human Kinetics. Dr. Lohman is also author of Advances in Body Composition Assessment.

ZiMian Wang, PhD, is an associate research scientist at Columbia University College and research associate in the Obesity Research Center of St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center. Trained in biology, biochemistry, physiology, and chemistry, he has published more than 100 research papers on the topic of human body composition.

Scott B. Going, PhD, is an associate professor in the department of nutritional sciences at the University of Arizona. An expert in body composition models and methods, he has more than 20 years of related teaching experience and research experience in this field.
Table of Contents
Part I: The Science of Body Composition Research
Chapter 1. Study of Body Composition: An Overview
Wei Shen, Marie-Pierre St-Onge, ZiMian Wang, and Steven B. Heymsfield

* Body Composition Rules and Models
* Future Directions

Part II: Body Composition Measurement Methods
Chapter 2. Hydrodensitometry and Air Displacement Plethysmography
Scott B. Going

* Body Composition Models
* Estimation of Body Volume by Underwater Weighing
* Recommended Procedures for Hydrodensitometry
* Air Displacement Plethysmography
* Summary

Chapter 3. Hydrometry
Dale A. Schoeller

* Total Body Water
* Intracellular Water and Extracellular Water
* Summary

Chapter 4. Whole-Body Counting and Neutron Activation Analysis
Kenneth J. Ellis

* Whole-Body Counting
* Neutron Activation Analysis

Chapter 5. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
Timothy G. Lohman and Zhao Chen

* History and Development of DXA
* Assumptions of DXA and Their Validity
* Applicability of DXA
* Equipment: Hardware
* Equipment: Software
* Measurement Procedures
* Calibration Procedures
* Precision of Total and Regional Composition Estimates
* Accuracy of DXA for the Measurement of Fatness
* Accuracy of DXA Regional Body Composition Assessments
* Estimating Body Composition Changes
* Hydration Status As a Confounder in DXA Body Composition Estimates
* Application of DXA to Pediatric Populations
* DXA Use in Multicomponent Models
* Steps Toward Standardization of DXA
* Recommended Procedure for DXA Measurements
* Summary

Chapter 6. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
Wm. Cameron Chumlea and Shumei S. Sun

* Physical Electrical Properties
* Bioelectrical Properties
* Measuring Impedance
* Impedance History
* Single- and Multiple-Frequency Impedance
* Impedance and Body Composition
* Changes in Body Composition
* Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance
* Impedance and Blood Chemistry
* Summary

Chapter 7. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Robert Ross and Ian Janssen

* CT Image Acquisition
* MRI Image Acquisition
* CT Image Analysis
* MRI Image Analysis
* Determination of Tissue Volume
* CT Measurement of Skeletal Muscle Tissue Quality
* CT Measurement of Liver Tissue Quality
* MRI Measurement of Skeletal Muscle Tissue Quality
* MRI Measurement of Liver Tissue Quality
* Validity of Tissue Quantity by CT
* Validity of Tissue Quantity by MRI
* Comparison of CT and MRI
* Applications of CT and MRI on Tissue Quantity and Quality
* Future Directions
* Potential of CT and MRI in Large-Scale Studies
* Summary

Chapter 8. Anthropometry and Ultrasound
Anna Bellisari and Alex F. Roche

* Anthropometry
* Ultrasound
* Summary

Chapter 9. Pediatric Body Composition Methods
Aviva Sopher, Wei Shen, and Angelo Pietrobelli

* Multicomponent Models
* Hydrodensitometry
* Air Displacement Plethysmography
* Dilution Methods
* Whole-Body Counting
* Electrical Methods
* Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
* Imaging Methods
* Anthropometry
* Summary

Chapter 10. Animal Body Composition Methods
Maria S. Johnson and Tim R. Nagy

* Carcass Analysis
* Total Body Electrical Conductivity (TOBEC)
* Total Body Water by Isotope Dilution
* Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
* Computed Tomography (CT)
* Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)
* Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
* Summary

Chapter 11. Statistical Methods
Shumei S. Sun and Wm. Cameron Chumlea

* Accuracy of Predictive Equations
* Validity of the Response Variable
* Precision of the Predictor Variables
* Relationships Between Predictor Variables and Response Variables
* Statistical Methods
* Size and Nature of the Sample
* Published Predictive Equations
* Summary

Part III: Body Composition Models and Components
Chapter 12. Multicomponent Molecular-Level Models of Body Composition Analysis
ZiMian Wang, Wei Shen, Robert T. Withers, and Steven B. Heymsfield

* General Concepts of Molecular-Level Body Composition Methods
* Three-, Four-, and Six-Component Hydrodensitometry Methods
* Four- and Six-Component Neutron Activation Methods
* Six-Component Total Body Carbon Method
* Multicomponent Total Body Protein Method
* Summary

Chapter 13. Measuring Adiposity and Fat Distribution in Relation to Health
Luís B. Sardinha and Pedro J. Teixeira

* Total Body Fatness
* Fat Distribution
* Summary

Chapter 14. Assessing Muscle Mass
Henry C. Lukaski

* Anthropometric Indicators of Muscle Mass
* Muscle Metabolites
* Radiographic Methods
* Nuclear Techniques
* Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
* High-Frequency Energy Absorption (HFEA)
* Summary

Chapter 15. Body Composition, Organ Mass, and Resting Energy Expenditure
Dympna Gallagher and Marinos Elia

* Measurement of REE
* Quantifying Specific Organ and Tissue Masses
* Specific Metabolic Rates of Organs and Tissues
* Modeling REE
* REE and Organ Metabolic Rates During the Life Span
* REE: Race and Ethnicity
* REE in Disease
* Ongoing Efforts in the Measurement of Tissue-Specific Metabolic Rates
* Summary

Part IV: Body Composition and Biological Influences
Chapter 16. Genetic Influences on Human Body Composition
Peter Katzmarzyk and Claude Bouchard

* Basic Concepts
* Methods
* Genetics and Body Fat Content
* Genetics and Fat Topography
* Genetic Pleiotropy and Body Fat Phenotypes
* Genetics and Skeletal Muscle Phenotypes
* Summary

Chapter 17. Age
Richard N. Baumgartner

* Fat Mass
* Fat Distribution
* Fat-Free Mass
* Summary

Chapter 18. Variation in Body Composition Associated With Sex and Ethnicity
Robert M. Malina

* Reference Values
* Total Body Composition
* Adipose Tissue Distribution
* Bone As a Component of Body Composition
* Skeletal Muscle
* Summary

Chapter 19. Pregnancy
Sally Ann Lederman

* Why Measure Pregnancy Body Composition?
* Measuring Body Composition Changes During Pregnancy
* Advances of the Field

Chapter 20. Exercise
Daniel P. Williams, Pedro J. Teixeira, and Scott B. Going

* Body Weight
* Whole-Body Fat
* Visceral Adipose Tissue
* Fat-Free Mass, Lean Soft Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle
* Bone
* Summary

Chapter 21. Hormonal Influences on Human Body Composition
Marie-Pierre St-Onge and Per Bjorntorp

* Hormonal Effects Through the Life Cycle
* Effects of Glucocorticoids
* Interactions Between Hormones
* Effects of Adipocyte-Derived Hormones
* Regulation of Energy Exchange
* Summary

Part V: Body Composition and Pathological States
Chapter 22. Morbidity and Mortality Associations
Jacob C. Seidell

* Anthropometric Measures in Relation to Morbidity and Mortality: Methodological Issues
* Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Mortality
* Body Composition and Aging: Implications for Morbidity and Mortality
* Effect of Age on the Association Between Weight Change and Health
* Effect of Age on the Association Between Fat Distribution and Health
* Summary

Chapter 23. Body Composition and Cancer
Zhao Chen

* Body Composition and Cancer Risk
* Body Composition and Cancer Treatment
* Cancer-Related Wasting
* Other Applications of Body Composition Assessments in Cancer Research
* Summary

Chapter 24. Obesity and Diabetes: Body Composition Determinants of Insulin Resistance
Bret H. Goodpaster and David E. Kelley

* Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and IR in Type 2 DM and Obesity
* Fat-Free Mass and IR in Type 2 DM and Obesity
* Abdominal Adiposity: Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Type 2 DM
* Lower-Extremity Adipose Tissue
* Skeletal Muscle Fat Content
* Hepatic Steatosis and IR in Obesity and Type 2 DM
* Effects of Weight Loss on Body Composition and IR
* Summary

Chapter 25. Body Composition Studies in People With HIV
Donald P. Kotler and Ellen S. Engelson

* Early Studies (1981-1983)
* Body Composition Assessment
* Cross-Sectional Studies
* Studies of Pathogenic Mechanisms
* Nutritional Status and Clinical Outcomes
* Longitudinal Studies
* Studies of Nutritional Therapies
* HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy
* Pseudotruncal Obesity
* Treatment of Fat Redistribution
* Switch Studies
* Summary

Chapter 26. Inflammatory Diseases and Body Composition
Ian Janssen and Ronenn Roubenoff

* Influence of Metabolic Imbalances on Body Composition
* Influence of Immune Mediators on Metabolism
* Usefulness of Body Composition As a Measure of Chronic Disease Status
* Inflammatory Diseases and Body Composition in Adults
* Inflammatory Diseases and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents
* Summary

Appendix: Reference Body Composition Tables

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